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Global Health Crisis: 1918 or 2019? The flaw in our desires.
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Global Health Crisis: 1918 or 2019? The flaw in our desires.

By Dr. Muhammad Hashim Ghouri, Mayo Hospital More than 100 years and yet we face a pandemic that devastates the state of global normal affairs. A young physician was told, he should learn how to build coffins when asked what he should prepare to go and assist with the pandemic and for the war effort in 1918. The Spanish, a noncombatant state in the World War 1, noticed the Spanish flu in February of 1918, hence the name. Whereas the combatant states were the ones that suffered most due to the deadly Influenza virus H1N1 and yet refused to have cases. Infecting just over a period of 1 year 2 months a third of the world’s population at that time. Killed more people than the World War I, II, Korean, and Vietnam Wars combined. Sadly enough, as soon as an epidemic crosses borders of a country, it becomes a pandemic, and the world health authorities are high alert. The history of pandemics dates earlier than 430 B.C. and yet one of the most devastating health events recorded in the world history has been the Spanish flu in 1918. Superimposed with the successive waves of the pandemic caused by a new strain each time. What makes a pandemic worrisome is the limited time frame to understand the cause, the rapid increase in suspects and deaths, as well as the depleting resources whether healthcare workforce or hospital care appliances. What makes the pandemic last longer is realizing what factors would flatten the curve and taking on board the general population to strengthen the implementation of selected measures. Moreover, the public disbelief in a certain disease until it hits their vicinity poses detrimental effects to all efforts made by any particular state. Besides all these factors faced by the world at any particular time, there are various other factors that make the response time and efforts count. Had the world known what a virus is in 1918, the health authorities would have better dealt with the Spanish flu pandemic as compared to COVID-19 pandemic. Early 19th century was the dawn of modern medicine, viruses were yet not discovered hence the flu treatment, prevention and the understanding of its transmission was out of question. Whereas today, when the world has been exposed to multiple waves of respiratory pandemics COVID-19 despite not having its vaccine or treatment was able to reduce transmission, prevent deterioration with already existing medications, literally coexist, and cooperate with the measures taken by the governments. Moreover, 1918 was the earliest stage of industrialization with an ongoing “Great War”, also known as ‘the war to end all wars’. Cold winters, crowded camps, troops shifting from one camp to the other, consumed governments, exhausting economic resources and the dwindling fate of certain states after a 4-year long war effort. More than 30% of doctors and nurses working for the military, which left hospitals and clinics, understaffed when the pandemic hit. Terror upon terror, struggle upon warfare, deaths upon deaths. Only palliative therapies that included turpentine and beef tea things were mainstay treatment, which could have caused more harm than actually helping. The world starting knowing about the ‘Purple death’ developed from the most vicious type of pneumonia. Cyanosis spreading from the ears to all over the face until the white were undistinguishable from colored men. To explain this disease to general people these pictures were created in the era of little technological advances where social media communication was meagre. Having no coffins and the picture of bodies stacked in morgue from floor to ceiling looked as fierce as cordwood. The high fatality three pandemic waves with an estimated 50 million deaths globally and an overall depressed average life expectancy by 12 years had stunned the rapidly advancing world and paralyzed the most modernized systems. Today the world is going through a similar pandemic yet in far better circumstances. We have no war to exhaust human or economic resources, rapid social media communication with people, far mechanized medical resources. We are aware of the existence of the viruses and possess certain antiviral treatments and by far the most important fact an extensive experience with respiratory pandemics. Alas, the world suffered massive human life loss. At the hand of cooperation, lack of multilateralism and global governance. Many nations outperformed others in containing the pandemic and preventing as great a loss as others by exercising essential measures. The fragmentation and polarization more than 100 years ago that led to the great war itself had been the center of reasons that failed countries at COVID-19 pandemic. In this rapidly developing world where multi-polarization for the sake of personal development has refrained us from executing global preparedness despite the experiences and individual preparedness of epidemics and even pandemics. To have a peace and secure world necessitates unity and solidarity. To limit the pandemic and its causalities entails cooperation and global preparedness. Are we ready to accept and coexist for the sake of the world?

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Pandemic Parallels
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Pandemic Parallels

By Dr. Zaid Tariq, Murdoch University (Australia) Since its outbreak, Covid-19 has frequently been compared to the 1918 Spanish flu. Although the two pandemics occurred in two different eras, and they are quite different in medical terms, certain similarities draw immediate attention. It has been more than 100 years since the world was hit by the deadliest pandemic, and the times have changed greatly, medical experts, economists, and politicians can learn some lessons to deal with the ongoing pandemic. This paper compares the general, economic, and social aspects of the two pandemics and deduces some important observations on how the impact of Covid-19 can be minimized. Medical Comparison The fact that both N1H1 and coronavirus attack the respiratory system and have similar propagation pattern, makes these comparisons quite valid and useful. Medical experts are closely analyzing various medical aspects of the 1918 pandemic to come up with better preventions and treatment methods. Nature of Viruses This is where all the comparisons began – the nature of both viruses. Both N1H1 and coronavirus are novel, which means they have never been identified before and humans don't have immunity against them. However, on a cellular level, both viruses are different from each other. Another similarity is, they are highly contagious and require more or less the same preventative measures to stop the spread. Just like the current pandemic, during the Spanish flu people were encouraged to cover their faces. Lockdowns, isolation, and quarantine were common terminologies then, just as they are now. Origin of Pandemics The biggest difference between the two pandemics is their origins. The 1918 Spanish flu broke out amidst World War I and was first identified in the U.S. military personnel. The health and living conditions attributed greatly to the spread of this flu. The H1N1 influenza virus, that causes this disease is found in birds and is highly contagious. Unlike popular belief, the outbreak did not start in Spain. The first known victims belonged to New York, but the disease was termed as Spanish flu because being the neutral state, Spain could highlight the gravity of the situation. However, the active participants of war kept forging the facts and suppressing the number of victims and deaths. Coming to Covid-19, the first patient was reported in 2019 from China. Research suggests that the virus was contained in the meat market of Wuhan, a Chinese province. It is definite that the virus had been passed on to humans from an animal host, but identifying the source is nearly impossible. Likely Victims and Mortality Rate The 1918 pandemic hit the world in three waves, and at one point it had affected 500 million people across the globe. The mortality rate was sky high, killing around 50 million people. The countries involved in WWI tried to suppress the situation by hiding the actual numbers of cases and deaths. So, it is hard to quote the exact mortality rate, but it was roughly around 2%. The death toll during the current pandemic has reached 1.9 million, which is alarming, but as compared to Spanish flu the mortality rate One major difference between the two is the profile of likely victims. The 1918 Spanish flu was most common among healthy adults, aged between 25 to 45. While the most vulnerable group to get affected by Covid-19 is the elderly or adults with underlying medical problems. Non-medical Interventions Even a century later, the non-pharmaceutical interventions remain the same. Just like today, back in 1918 the immediate responses to limit the spread of the disease were quarantine, isolation, use of disinfectants, and masks. However, back then there were no antibiotics to treat other complications caused by the flu, hence the higher mortality rate. Thanks to the medical evolution, successful vaccination trials have already begun for Covid-19, which means that the duration for the current pandemic can be shorter than the Spanish flu. Impact on the Global Economy Implementing preventative measures during a pandemic directly affects the socio-economic conditions. Both pandemics triggered the global economic crisis, but the consequences are different. Let's see in what ways the economic disruption caused by the two pandemics is different. Economic Consequences In terms of economy, the consequences of the previous pandemic were more severe. Although the extent of lockdowns was way flexible than today, the fact that the 1918 pandemic happened during WWI, when the world was already facing an economic crisis, made matters even worse. Negative Labor Supply Just like today, during the Spanish flu the GDP went down and the unemployment rate increased. However, one major difference between the two pandemics is negative labor shock. The 1918 pandemic affected the group that presented the major labor force. So, the recovery from economical disruptions took way more time than today. Another factor that it seems unlikely that Covid-19 will have a similar economic impact as the Spanish flu is, there are alternate means of business today. A century ago, there was no concept of e-commerce or remote working. How Pandemics Shape Societies? It might seem like society is embracing the new norms, but pandemics affect the social dynamics and psychology of individuals on a deeper level than usually perceived. Although medical experts insist that social distancing and avoiding crowds is the only effective way to slow down the propagation of a contagious disease, it does have a negative psychological impact. Amidst both pandemics, a rise in mental illness has been observed. However, thanks to technology today there are alternatives to socialize. Final Thoughts The two pandemics are indeed different in terms of medical background, but there are certain lessons we can learn from the past to save the future. The reason why the 1918 pandemic resulted in so many casualties was inconsistent policymaking. If preventative measures are taken promptly, the impact of the pandemic can be minimized to a significant extent.

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82 Years on: From Pandemic to Pandemic
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82 Years on: From Pandemic to Pandemic

By The 195 Project Caused by the SARS-VoV-2 virus, also known as the coronavirus, Covid-19 is an ongoing pandemic and enigma that has brought much change globally in the past year. People have tried to unearth and understand the historical experience with global pandemics to try to demystify COVID-19. This is for good reason since the current human generation has never experienced a global pandemic. Much reference has been made to the 1918 influenza flu pandemic caused by the H1N1 virus. There is no known origin for this virus, but it managed to spread worldwide within a year. It has been described as the most severe global pandemic in humanity’s recent history. Transmission Both the 1918 flu and coronavirus share basic similarities in the way they are transmitted. The main cause of infection from one person to another is close contact. The virus could be spread from the infected person’s nose or mouth in tiny fluid fragments or particles when they speak, sneeze, cough, sing or breathe out heavily. These fluid particles vary in size, from easily visible respiratory droplets to minute aerosols. The next person can catch the virus if they are in close or direct contact with an infected person, through their mouth, nose and even eyes. Infection can also happen if they touch surfaces where the fluids land on and proceed to touch their mouth, nose or eyes. This pubic knowledge on transmission may not have been available in 1918, thus the high number of infections and fatalities. In the era of Covid-19, people took similar precaution against infections by limiting direct and close contact with others through social distancing, leading to fewer transmissions. Infection and Fatality The 1918 flu is believed to have spread to about half a billion people, one-third of the entire world's population. The number of deaths was one of the most outrageous within a short span of time, at least 50 million fatalities worldwide. Mortality was higher in children under the age of 5, those between 20 and 40 years old and the elderly above the age of 65. What was surprising about this particular statistic was the high mortality even within the population thought to be physically healthy – those in the 20 to 40-year-old age group. This, however, can be attributed to their lifestyle and livelihoods which required them to be out in public amongst other people, and therefore at risk of infection. Similarly, Covid-19 has been estimated to have infected over 92 million people across the world. Almost 2 million of these infected persons have died due to Covid-19 complications. The population at greater risk is the elderly and those who have other health complications prior to infection. These complications include diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. Another term for these pre-existing conditions is co-morbidities. Lowering the Curve There was less information in 1918 regarding containing the spread of influenza apart from the isolation of those who exhibited symptoms of infection. The same applies to today, including the preventative measures taken, such as face masks and social distancing. To date, there are no proven vaccines against influenza. There are also no antibiotics that could be used to treat secondary influenza bacterial infections linked to influenza. In both cases, the infection curve was lowered through isolation, keeping symptomatic and asymptomatic persons in quarantine, maintaining good personal hygiene, using disinfectants and limiting public gatherings. Government Intervention During the Covid-19 pandemic, one defining factor is the mandatory lockdown, curfew and health and safety laws set and implemented by governments across different countries. These non-pharmaceutical interventions have contributed significantly to lowering the curve. However, this has drastically affected the economy since it brought movement and most services to a standstill, leaving only essential services to operate. While most governments have been trying to open up the economy, sudden surges due to 'waves' of the disease characterized by the dramatic mortality of the virus have led to intermittent lockdown periods. This is quite similar to the 1918 flu, whereas the numbers began to reduce by mid-1918 in the United States; there was a sudden surge by the time autumn kicked in. Economic Consequences It may seem like most governments had underestimated the unforeseen risks of Covid-19. Their responses in the form of lockdowns, curfews and limited movement was mostly a reactive response, having learnt nothing from the 1918 flu. There is a clear need for investments in public health systems, collective epidemic preparedness and proactive international plans to save lives in future better and even sustain the economy since pandemics are still likely to exist. As populations reacted according to government instructions, there was reduced productivity, trade disruption and a near-halt an international movement. General Population’s Attitude Since the world was significantly more densely populated in 2020 than in 1918, the pandemic's widespread was inevitable. Coupled with the existence of air travel and increased cross-border movement, people were more mobile. Back in 1918, the movement was by ships in the sea, the horse on land or no movement at all. However, the number of people who got infected and died during the 1918 pandemic was over 20 times the ones who have died from Covid-19 so far. Humanity seemed to have forgotten this part of history, most of which came to be known by the current generation only after Covid-19 was declared a pandemic. One major lesson is never to forget. There have been public health emergencies that have gone global since 1918 such as HIV/AIDS since the 1980s, SARS in the year 2003 and H1N1 influenza in 2009. Not to forget Ebola. These have often caught the general public by surprise, but scientists have always been aware of and warned us against pandemics. Conclusion Most important is for authorities and the general public not to forgo the lessons, structures and strategies set in interventions during the Covid-19 pandemic. Information on the 1918 influenza pandemic is just as important as the research being carried out today. There are lessons to be picked about global pandemics that have informed responses to Covid-19, the most important ones being the non-pharmaceutical approach to containing an outbreak that has no vaccine or antibiotic yet.

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A Comparison of the Transmission, Responses and Effects of the Global Pandemics
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A Comparison of the Transmission, Responses and Effects of the Global Pandemics

By Dr. Braden Moluccas, University of New South Wales (Australia) Caused by the SARS-VoV-2 virus, also known as the coronavirus, Covid-19 is an ongoing pandemic and enigma that has brought much change globally in the past year. People have tried to unearth and understand the historical experience with global pandemics to try to demystify COVID-19. This is for good reason since the current human generation has never experienced a global pandemic. Much reference has been made to the 1918 influenza flu pandemic caused by the H1N1 virus. There is no known origin for this virus, but it managed to spread worldwide within a year. It has been described as the most severe global pandemic in humanity’s recent history. Transmission Both the 1918 flu and coronavirus share basic similarities in the way they are transmitted. The main cause of infection from one person to another is close contact. The virus could be spread from the infected person’s nose or mouth in tiny fluid fragments or particles when they speak, sneeze, cough, sing or breathe out heavily. These fluid particles vary in size, from easily visible respiratory droplets to minute aerosols. The next person can catch the virus if they are in close or direct contact with an infected person, through their mouth, nose and even eyes. Infection can also happen if they touch surfaces where the fluids land on and proceed to touch their mouth, nose or eyes. This pubic knowledge on transmission may not have been available in 1918, thus the high number of infections and fatalities. In the era of Covid-19, people took similar precaution against infections by limiting direct and close contact with others through social distancing, leading to fewer transmissions. Infection and Fatality The 1918 flu is believed to have spread to about half a billion people, one-third of the entire world's population. The number of deaths was one of the most outrageous within a short span of time, at least 50 million fatalities worldwide. Mortality was higher in children under the age of 5, those between 20 and 40 years old and the elderly above the age of 65. What was surprising about this particular statistic was the high mortality even within the population thought to be physically healthy – those in the 20 to 40-year-old age group. This, however, can be attributed to their lifestyle and livelihoods which required them to be out in public amongst other people, and therefore at risk of infection. Similarly, Covid-19 has been estimated to have infected over 92 million people across the world. Almost 2 million of these infected persons have died due to Covid-19 complications. The population at greater risk is the elderly and those who have other health complications prior to infection. These complications include diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer. Another term for these pre-existing conditions is co-morbidities. Lowering the Curve There was less information in 1918 regarding containing the spread of influenza apart from the isolation of those who exhibited symptoms of infection. The same applies to today, including the preventative measures taken, such as face masks and social distancing. To date, there are no proven vaccines against influenza. There are also no antibiotics that could be used to treat secondary influenza bacterial infections linked to influenza. In both cases, the infection curve was lowered through isolation, keeping symptomatic and asymptomatic persons in quarantine, maintaining good personal hygiene, using disinfectants and limiting public gatherings. Government Intervention During the Covid-19 pandemic, one defining factor is the mandatory lockdown, curfew and health and safety laws set and implemented by governments across different countries. These non-pharmaceutical interventions have contributed significantly to lowering the curve. However, this has drastically affected the economy since it brought movement and most services to a standstill, leaving only essential services to operate. While most governments have been trying to open up the economy, sudden surges due to 'waves' of the disease characterized by the dramatic mortality of the virus have led to intermittent lockdown periods. This is quite similar to the 1918 flu, whereas the numbers began to reduce by mid-1918 in the United States; there was a sudden surge by the time autumn kicked in. Economic Consequences It may seem like most governments had underestimated the unforeseen risks of Covid-19. Their response in the form of lockdowns, curfews and limited movement was mostly a reactive response, having learnt nothing from the 1918 flu. There is a clear need for investments in public health systems, collective epidemic preparedness and proactive international plans to save lives in future better and even sustain the economy since pandemics are still likely to exist. As populations reacted according to government instructions, there was reduced productivity, trade disruption and a near-halt an international movement. General Population’s Attitude Since the world was significantly more densely populated in 2020 than in 1918, the pandemic's widespread was inevitable. Coupled with the existence of air travel and increased cross-border movement, people were more mobile. Back in 1918, the movement was by ships in the sea, the horse on land or no movement at all. However, the number of people who got infected and died during the 1918 pandemic was over 20 times the ones who have died from Covid-19 so far. Humanity seemed to have forgotten this part of history, most of which came to be known by the current generation only after Covid-19 was declared a pandemic. One major lesson is never to forget. There have been public health emergencies that have gone global since 1918 such as HIV/AIDS since the 1980s, SARS in the year 2003 and H1N1 influenza in 2009. Not to forget Ebola. These have often caught the general public by surprise, but scientists have always been aware of and warned us against pandemics. Conclusion Most important is for authorities and the general public not to forgo the lessons, structures and strategies set in interventions during the Covid-19 pandemic. Information on the 1918 influenza pandemic is just as important as the research being carried out today. There are lessons to be picked about global pandemics that have informed responses to Covid-19, the most important ones being the non-pharmaceutical approach to containing an outbreak that has no vaccine or antibiotic yet. References Rogers, K. 2020. What we can learn from 1918’s deadly second wave. CNN Health. Retrieved Jan 2020: https://edition.cnn.com/2020/10/29/health/1918-pandemic-vs-2020-pandemic-fall-wave-wellness/index.html Webel M, Freeman M. 2020. Compare the Flu Pandemic of 1918 and Covid-19 with Caution. The Conversation. Retrieved Jan 2020: https://theconversation.com/compare-the-flu-pandemic-of-1918-and-covid-19-with-caution-the-past-is-not-a-prediction-138895 World Health Organization. 2020. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions. Retrieved Jan 2021: https://theconversation.com/compare-the-flu-pandemic-of-1918-and-covid-19-with-caution-the-past-is-not-a-prediction-138895https://theconversation.com/compare-the-flu-pandemic-of-1918-and-covid-19-with-caution-the-past-is-not-a-prediction-138895

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Covid-19 in view of 1918 Pandemic
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Covid-19 in view of 1918 Pandemic

By Dr. Farah Naz, Dow University of Health and Sciences The world is suffering from the most virulent and fatal type of a novel coronavirus strain, Sars-Cov-2, effecting nearly 188 countries. (12) The first case was reported on 19th Dec 2019 in Wuhan, China. Later on, the cases were seemed appearing rapidly in various regions around the world. According to WHO statistics, America The new strain of coronavirus is so virulent that it infects people ten times faster than the seasonal flu(SARS.)According to the latest statistics, It has infected more than 90million people and resulted in nearly 2millions deaths worldwide. (1) The world had been through numerous pandemics before, which were equally violent and damaging to the world and its dwellers. As 2019 and, 1918 pandemics began by the viral outbreak, and both caused respiratory illnesses among people therefore, this review aims to gain insight from 1918 pandemic and make reasonable comparisons with Covid-19 pandemic. What is Pandemic? Pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease which is infective and fatal to most of the population. It disturbs the entire equilibrium of the world, creating an economic, political, and social disturbance. The threats of pandemics are judged by infective organism diversity, virulence and human interaction. Influenza has become the common cause of the likelihood of pandemic. Any year, there is a 1% chance that influenza would flare-up into a pandemic. (13) Nearly 100 years ago, like Covid-19, Spanish flu broke out in 1918, which originated from birds(Avian flu). (21) The first infected case reported on 17th Sep 1918, and just following two weeks, the graphs of infected people rose to more than 20,000. The Spanish pandemic was considered the most deadly as it killed more than 20 to over 100 million deaths worldwide-more than 2.5% of the total population(2) and lasted for two years with three waves in between1918 and 1919. (4) Difference between the Spanish Flu and Covid-19 pandemic The duration of almost ten decades between two viral pandemics in history self explains the probability of changes from that time till now. Here are a few as follow, Spanish flu caused by the H1N1 type of influenza virus whereas, Coronavirus outbreak due to a new SARS-coV-2 strain. Spanish flu started in the middle of world war I, Covid-19 first case was reported in Wuhan, China. Spanish flu targeted youngs and adults mostly. However, Covid-19 is more dangerous and fatal to the elderly, suffering from co-morbid. CFR(case fertility risk) for SARS-coV-2 is 1% while that of Spanish flu was 2% . Covid-19 can spread through infected people having milder or no symptoms(asymptomatic). Spanish flu spread was only though the symptomatic patients. Spanish flu was believed to be dissipated due to less hygiene, congested living, poverty, less education and awareness whereas, fast travel and exploitation of natural resources are blamed for Covid-19 spread. Lesson learned from 1918 pandemic Non pharmacological interventions(NPI) Closure of businesses, shopping malls, churches, schools, public gatherings was among the NPI restrictions, that were applied. Also, imposing lockdown and effective quarantine seemed the most effective method to cease the viral spread. Two studies investigated a co-relation of NPI and less viral spread. The results showed a decrease in peak death rate with the number of interventions used. Impose social distancing and lockdown rules as early as possible As per researches, the best measure was how early the interventions imposed. Those regions, who put restriction rules earlier with the first infected case reported, managed to cut off the peak early, than those who waited a few weeks. For instance, according to the studies, Boston and Philadelphia imposed the same restrictions. But Philadelphia implied two weeks early, that curb the spread better than Boston, which later declared the worst affected city with influenza. (7) Problems faced in 1918 vs Covid-19 pandemic Firstly, although social restriction and home confinement soared the death toll and infections in pandemics, limited exposure to the outside world enhanced the mental illnesses. Recent studies confirmed that the Covid-19 pandemic and its consequences have already increased the suicidal risk worldwide. People in the Spanish flu also suffered anxiety owing to being infected or losing their loved one’s. Secondly, the health care system during the 1918 pandemic was underdeveloped and not advanced. The study on microbes(virology and microbiology) begun in the 1930s therefore, people had no clue of influenza as a virus causing infections and deaths. Also, there were no high powered microscopes to visualize virus and no testing available. (8) On the other side, the viral spread in Covid-19 pandemic become instantaneous and uncontrollable due to the fast and modern air travel. The economic crisis in 1918 Vs Covid-19 pandemic Pandemic years(1918-1919) appeared the toughest years to the world due to the influenza outbreak and world war(I) at the same time, compounding the economic crisis. The economy suffered a collapse owing to the closing of business, unemployment and less GDP. Shortage of labour occurred due to more fatalities of young adults working class during the 1918 pandemic.(12) Perhaps, coronavirus is more infected to older people, assuming that it may not cause the labour shortage once clear. According to the world bank report, the 1918 pandemic caused approximately $800 billion loss however, the damage is expected to be greater. (11) Coronavirus pandemic has not ended yet, but millions of people are furloughed or redundant. As per reports, the U.S has reported 10.4% of redundancies during this time. Global market saw the first decline in Feb 2020, and later in March 2020, the market suffered a crushed(since 1987). The travel industry is badly affected, and the oil prices per barrel dropped to the lowest in the last 18 years($20.6). (12) According to the world bank, the global economy is expected to shrink from 2.5 to 5 % this year.(10) Economy boosting efforts in 1918 Vs Covid-19 pandemic As per researches, it took the world nearly 2-3 years to re-establish the economy. During Covid-19, countries are taking actions to uplift their economies such as England has bought easy money borrowing schemes and encouraging spending. However, economists have speculated that it would take many years to renormalize the employment levels as pre covid. (12) Administrative role in defeating 1918 Vs Covid-19 pandemic But in 1918, the constraints were toughened enough, and people were gun-shoot and fined money if not abided by the rules, which resulted in a viral spread dropped to lesser than 50%. Also, lowest death rates attained in regions who implemented early lockdown. Whereas, people vaccinated for influenza virus in the 1940s.(9) However, imposing social restrictions and the lockdown was proven useful in both past and covid-19 pandemics. Public support in 1918 Vs Covid-19 pandemic There are insufficient or no data available to acknowledge the public contribution in controlling the 1918 influenza pandemic. However, internet technology has quite helped to analyze public reaction and contribution amid covid-19 pandemic. As per researched data,45 to 99% of people had good knowledge about covid-19. They had a positive attitude (24-93%). Nevertheless, practising the protective measures(washing hands, social distance and facemask use) were linked with education, marital status, financial status, religious belief, race, gender and age.(22) Conclusion Since 2019, the whole world is fighting against Coronavirus outbreak, and it is uncertain how long it would last. Undoubtedly, we are living in the modernized era, using the technology and best modern healthcare facilities. Perhaps, most victims of catastrophes, like pandemics, are still from lower-income, less education and living in poor conditions. (10) History from the past pandemics taught us that using correct intervention at the right time could be worthwhile to win against coronavirus pandemic. Also, government contribution and public cooperation is the key to achieve a pandemic free world. Reference list https://covid19.who.int/ https://ourworldindata.org/spanish-flu-largest-influenza-pandemic-in-history https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200420/four-lessons-from-the-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic#4 https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nej https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/rapid-response-was-crucial-containing-1918-flu-pandemic https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200420/four-lessons-from-the-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic#4 https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/2020/03/how-cities-flattened-curve-1918-spanish-flu-pandemic-coronavirus/

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A Monumental Step Forward
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A Monumental Step Forward

By The 195 Project The following editorial article provides a brief regarding why such conscientious and notable High-Net-Worth Individuals should unite based on their philanthropy and solutions-orientated approach to help address the economic ramifications of the Covid-19 pandemic. A “New Normal” or a Worsening Nightmare? Although the Covid-19 pandemic is itself is a new reality, the economic problems that have emerged across sectors due to its impact tell an old and familiar story. This story has pervaded macroeconomic discussions between nations and their populations since the creation of the 1944 Bretton Woods Agreement. The period of economic reconstruction following World War II is often characterised as a golden age of consensus. The acknowledged experts who negotiated economic treaties, each traumatised by the memory of war, prioritised the overarching importance of bilateral friendship, economic diplomacy, and fiscal accountability over the natural human predisposition to first consider their own country’s perspective. Conservative media often recall this supposed time of thrift and pragmatism when criticising the politicians, economists, and institutions that have emerged in their place. At the other end of the editorial spectrum, liberal media criticise their detractors’ perceived disinterest in regulations or pinpoint their alleged avarice. Meanwhile, the rest of the world’s population desperately and deservedly craves only shelter, food, fairness, and accountability. Unfortunately, all of these are conspicuously and devastatingly absent in today’s scenario. Yet, past experiences tell us that this phenomenon is not an anomaly caused by or exclusive to the Covid-19 era. Inspiration for the Creation of the 195 Project The 195 Project is a new initiative intended to stimulate discussions and uncover viable solutions for active philanthropists operating during the COVID-19 era. This global crisis serves as a poignant and startling reminder to many who hold positions of influence in the C-Suite and beyond, that the precepts of the Bretton Woods Agreement are not appropriate today. For us to be able to identify a successful and efficient solution to address the present-day human suffering, which will perpetuate for generations if not mitigated, it is important to ensure that wealth does not abrogate our ability to listen, learn, and feel with genuine empathy and compassion. Waking Up to a Cataclysmic Reality In his recent remarks to The Australian, foreign policy analyst Greg Sheridan identified the concerns of this age as the fault of a break with the sobering memory of war. These concerns are real and economic, and cataclysmic when considered in conjunction with the Covid-19 aftermath. Our post-war leaders and thinkers have eschewed the pragmatism of overcoming multigenerational poverty and, instead, embraced a form of state-building that has hinged on moral decadence. The current phenomenon is most definitely one of economic stagnation, institutional decay, and cultural and intellectual exhaustion. Yet, it has come during a time of extraordinary technological development and exponentially expanding material prosperity for the financial elite. Highlighting “demographic decline, overhang of debt, constraints on education, environmental limitations, and technological stagnation” as the forces that will constrain future growth, Sheridan, like many other figures in the Western conservative culture, , repeatedly resorts to a nostalgia of the brighter past. He recalls an era that began to falter long before advances began to be made in Western state-building, in the early 1970s. Covid-19 has led economists to extol the new and remarkable shifts in contemporary trends and policy, with the repeated suggestion that markets, businesses and governments should now operate outside the bounds of post-war precedents. In May 2020, President Donald J. Trump threatened to default the US$1.1 trillion of sovereign debt that the US owes to the People’s Republic of China. Many observers agreed with CNN’s assessment that governments are pushing the envelope far beyond previous incidents. Another vivid example was when British Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced in May 2020 that the UK government will cover 80% of all British employees’ salaries, paying the bulk of almost 10 million UK private-sector workers’ wages at the peak of the pandemic. This led to the nation incurring a debt of US$72.7 billion. Spain’s leading financial group, CaixaBank, reports that China set the precedent for what will prove to be unprecedented. As China was the first to observe and react to Covid-19, it had a lengthier timeframe to begin economic recovery. This itself is a signal and harbinger that stands as proof for the argument that “the global coronavirus pandemic will most probably end up having economic consequences of an unprecedented scale.” The Good, the Bad, the Unknown, and the Unprecedented What is the true state of the world economy as we face the unprecedented challenges ushered in by the Covid-19 pandemic? History shows that the United States has delayed repayment of debts to its creditors. Franklin D. Roosevelt did so in March 1933, by suspending the gold standard metric to counter the severe disinflation and collapse of the financial system that occurred during the Great Depression. On July 15th, 1947, it was not the developing world but the United Kingdom which became the world’s single largest recipient of foreign aid, with John Maynard Keynes’ negotiation of loans exceeding $50 billion. These obligations were not repaid until 2006. It is important to understand that these loans were not taken to pay salaries, but were incurred by factories manufacturing armaments necessary for war. In China’s case, the pathos that the country provides a good barometer for global impact holds water. However, it is also a dichotomy that solely considers post-war economic rationale. It does not adequately weigh the cultural characteristics and societal trends toward innovation that have made China’s economic growth strong at worst, and at best, stratospheric. The Bretton Woods agreement, which proved impossible to implement and became the subject of significant criticism by successive generations, has taught us one powerful lesson: Those who give should never receive and those who receive should never forget. Our response to the COVID-19 pandemic must not be outlined by the powerful and the soluble, such as the plan defined by the victors of World War II at Bretton Woods – which all others in attendance had no choice but to accept. Neither must our fiscal and philanthropic response to this pandemic’s challenges be one of score-settling or of proving who is right in the battle of ideologies in economics. BRETTON: The Power of Hindsight to Ensure a Fairer Future The theory that emerged from the Bretton Woods experience is easy to discredit with the power of hindsight. However, the mathematical premise and the idea of security underwritten by precious metal and trust in one’s neighbour – whether they are a debtor or lender – makes perfect sense. Yet, when we separate the realities of finance and philanthropy from the rhetoric of modern politics, it is clear that the economic policies and research that succeed Bretton and Covid-19 must have a closer relationship with the developing world’s UHNWIs, economists, students, journalists, and philanthropists. This clarity has emerged from the fear of a deadly global disease that remains uncurable even as vaccines offer some hope. At this juncture, there is a common desire from all nations in all continents, to influence policies − whether in economics or in technology – to benefit the greater good. So many experts have demonstrated direct personal knowledge of emerging technologies in faraway markets. Those have long escaped the attention of established economists – but now characterise, rather than disregard, how capital flows, thanks to global technology. So, while the 195 Project will seek solutions, its members will take an approach that is different from that of the Bretton signatories. The Bretton Woods agreement enforced the economic policy that came to define businesses’ attitude towards money during the aftermath of the war. In contrast, the 195 Project initiatives will be based on the representative nature of our members’ business locations and interests. The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) as well as the countries of the developing world will be afforded equal dialogue in making research decisions and providing diverse perspectives on emerging technologies and trends. Yet, if we are to fulfil our goal, which is to provide a better, more prosperous future with sustainable solutions to address our present challenges, we must remember that the Bretton Woods Agreement was not a failure. It taught us all an invaluable lesson. Money should not be used for political gain or for the proliferation of soft power. Money and the mechanics of finance should move at the same pace and with the same intrinsic instincts as an algorithm, code, or a pan-national business. Money should support the needy and be given without any bilateral or political motive or agenda. In the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic, money serves little purpose to those who have the privilege of possessing it, unless they use it to permanently solve problems such as extraordinary debt, which have plagued the world for generations, despite consistent GDP growth. Exercise Your Full Potential and Moral Responsibility for Good Wealth is power. Those who control it own a personal and civic moral responsibility to use it for the greater good. Wealth can be compounded by leveraging it in an intelligent, strategic, proactive, and compassionate manner through philanthropic investment. Such an investment ensures a perpetually sustained return on investment that is greater than the sum of its parts; one that shapes the future in ways that go far beyond the capacity of financial power. What is the best way to accomplish such worthy goals and generate a positive multiplier effect to uplift this generation as well as those to come? This is the profound and vital question raised by Project 195. The answers to this question will ultimately be revealed through the collaborative, creative, dynamic, innovative, and philanthropically focused work executed by this intentionally purposeful think tank. Please accept this honourable challenge by joining the 195 Project and contributing your experience, insight, influence, and generosity of spirit to support the upliftment of the economy.

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